在 ArchLinux 上安装 Nextcloud

之前因为某些原因,弄了一台 Vultr 上的主机,有 1000GB 的带宽,基本上每月都用不完。因此就想着用来搭建一些服务自己来用。

之前尝试安装过 rsshub,不过后来转移到 Vercel 了。这次就想尝试安装一下 Nextcloud。

虽然我知道,直接用 docker 会更简单,不过既然 Nextcloud 以及在官方的源(我的系统是 Arch Linux)里了,就忍不住折腾一番。

需要用到的安装包:

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pacman -S mariadb php nextcloud php-intl php-fpm redis php-redis

由于之前已经安装并配置了 nginx,这个就不用重新在安装了。

1. 配置数据库

由于我用的文件系统是 btrfs,所以需要先禁用写时复制(CoW):

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btrfs subvolume create /var/lib/mysql
chattr +C /var/lib/mysql

然后运行数据库:

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mariadb-install-db --user=mysql --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql
systemctl enable mariadb
systemctl start mariadb

增强安全性:

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mysql_secure_installation

限制只能本地访问:

/etc/my.cnf.d/server.cnf
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[mysqld]
bind-address=127.0.0.1
skip-networking

自动补全功能:

/etc/my.cnf.d/mysql-clients.cnf
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[mysql]
auto-rehash

配置 Nextcloud 的数据库:

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CREATE DATABASE nextcloud DEFAULT CHARACTER SET 'utf8mb4' COLLATE 'utf8mb4_general_ci';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON nextcloud.* TO 'nextcloud'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '<password>';
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
\q

2. 配置 php

启用所需要的模块:

/etc/php/php.ini
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[php]
extension=gd
extension=iconv
extension=intl
extension=mysqli
zend_extension=opcache
extension=pdo_mysql

memory_limit = 512M
upload_max_filesize = 1024M

3. 配置 Redis 缓存

启用 redis:

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systemctl enable redis
systemctl start redis

配置 php 扩展:

/etc/php/conf.d/redis.ini
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extension=redis
/etc/php/conf.d/igbinary.ini
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[igbinary]
extension=igbinary.so

在 nextcloud 的配置文件中启用 redis:

/etc/webapps/nextcloud/config.php
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'memcache.distributed' => 'OCMemcacheRedis',
'memcache.local' => 'OCMemcacheRedis',
'memcache.locking' => 'OCMemcacheRedis',
'redis' => array(
'host' => 'localhost',
'port' => 6379,
),

4. 配置 php-fpm

在 php-fpm 添加 nextcloud 配置:

/etc/php/php-fpm.d/nextcloud.conf
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[nextcloud]
user = nextcloud
group = nextcloud
listen = /run/nextcloud/nextcloud.sock
env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
env[TMP] = /tmp

; should be accessible by your web server
listen.owner = http
listen.group = http

pm = dynamic
pm.max_children = 15
pm.start_servers = 2
pm.min_spare_servers = 1
pm.max_spare_servers = 3

运行

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systemctl edit php-fpm.service

编辑 php-fpm 服务:

/etc/systemd/system/php-fpm.service.d/override.conf
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[Service]
# Your data directory
ReadWritePaths=/var/lib/nextcloud/data

# Optional: add if you've set the default apps directory to be writable in config.php
ReadWritePaths=/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps

# Optional: unnecessary if you've set 'config_is_read_only' => true in your config.php
ReadWritePaths=/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/config

ReadWritePaths=/etc/webapps/nextcloud/config

# Optional: add if you want to use Nextcloud's internal update process
# ReadWritePaths=/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud

启用 php-fpm 服务:

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systemctl enable php-fpm.service
systemctl start php-fpm.service

5. 配置域名

我的域名是托管在阿里云,在 dns 解析中添加三级域名 nextcloud 解析,并申请 ssl 证书。

证书下载之后,上传到 /etc/nginx/ssl/

6. 配置 nginx

在 nginx 添加配置,基本是按照官方参考文件来的,只修改了 php-handlerserver_namessl_certificateroot

/etc/nginx/site-available/nextcloud.conf
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upstream php-handler {
server unix:/run/nextcloud/nextcloud.sock;
}

server {
listen 80;
listen [::]:80;
server_name <nextcloud.example.com>;

# Enforce HTTPS
return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
}

server {
listen 443 ssl http2;
listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
server_name <nextcloud.example.com>;

# Use Mozilla's guidelines for SSL/TLS settings
# https://mozilla.github.io/server-side-tls/ssl-config-generator/
ssl_certificate ssl/<nextcloud.example.com>.pem;
ssl_certificate_key ssl/<nextcloud.example.com>.key;

# HSTS settings
# WARNING: Only add the preload option once you read about
# the consequences in https://hstspreload.org/. This option
# will add the domain to a hardcoded list that is shipped
# in all major browsers and getting removed from this list
# could take several months.
#add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000; includeSubDomains; preload;" always;

# set max upload size
client_max_body_size 1024M;
fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;

# Enable gzip but do not remove ETag headers
gzip on;
gzip_vary on;
gzip_comp_level 4;
gzip_min_length 256;
gzip_proxied expired no-cache no-store private no_last_modified no_etag auth;
gzip_types application/atom+xml application/javascript application/json application/ld+json application/manifest+json application/rss+xml application/vnd.geo+json application/vnd.ms-fontobject application/x-font-ttf application/x-web-app-manifest+json application/xhtml+xml application/xml font/opentype image/bmp image/svg+xml image/x-icon text/cache-manifest text/css text/plain text/vcard text/vnd.rim.location.xloc text/vtt text/x-component text/x-cross-domain-policy;

# Pagespeed is not supported by Nextcloud, so if your server is built
# with the `ngx_pagespeed` module, uncomment this line to disable it.
#pagespeed off;

# HTTP response headers borrowed from Nextcloud `.htaccess`
add_header Referrer-Policy "no-referrer" always;
add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff" always;
add_header X-Download-Options "noopen" always;
add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN" always;
add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies "none" always;
add_header X-Robots-Tag "none" always;
add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block" always;

# Remove X-Powered-By, which is an information leak
fastcgi_hide_header X-Powered-By;

# Path to the root of your installation
root /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud;

# Specify how to handle directories -- specifying `/index.php$request_uri`
# here as the fallback means that Nginx always exhibits the desired behaviour
# when a client requests a path that corresponds to a directory that exists
# on the server. In particular, if that directory contains an index.php file,
# that file is correctly served; if it doesn't, then the request is passed to
# the front-end controller. This consistent behaviour means that we don't need
# to specify custom rules for certain paths (e.g. images and other assets,
# `/updater`, `/ocm-provider`, `/ocs-provider`), and thus
# `try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$request_uri`
# always provides the desired behaviour.
index index.php index.html /index.php$request_uri;

# Rule borrowed from `.htaccess` to handle Microsoft DAV clients
location = / {
if ( $http_user_agent ~ ^DavClnt ) {
return 302 /remote.php/webdav/$is_args$args;
}
}

location = /robots.txt {
allow all;
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
}

# Make a regex exception for `/.well-known` so that clients can still
# access it despite the existence of the regex rule
# `location ~ /(\.|autotest|...)` which would otherwise handle requests
# for `/.well-known`.
location ^~ /.well-known {
# The rules in this block are an adaptation of the rules
# in `.htaccess` that concern `/.well-known`.

location = /.well-known/carddav { return 301 /remote.php/dav/; }
location = /.well-known/caldav { return 301 /remote.php/dav/; }

location /.well-known/acme-challenge { try_files $uri $uri/ =404; }
location /.well-known/pki-validation { try_files $uri $uri/ =404; }

# Let Nextcloud's API for `/.well-known` URIs handle all other
# requests by passing them to the front-end controller.
return 301 /index.php$request_uri;
}

# Rules borrowed from `.htaccess` to hide certain paths from clients
location ~ ^/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)(?:$|/) { return 404; }
location ~ ^/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) { return 404; }

# Ensure this block, which passes PHP files to the PHP process, is above the blocks
# which handle static assets (as seen below). If this block is not declared first,
# then Nginx will encounter an infinite rewriting loop when it prepends `/index.php`
# to the URI, resulting in a HTTP 500 error response.
location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {
fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+?\.php)(/.*)$;
set $path_info $fastcgi_path_info;

try_files $fastcgi_script_name =404;

include fastcgi_params;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $path_info;
fastcgi_param HTTPS on;

fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true; # Avoid sending the security headers twice
fastcgi_param front_controller_active true; # Enable pretty urls
fastcgi_pass php-handler;

fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
fastcgi_request_buffering off;
}

location ~ \.(?:css|js|svg|gif)$ {
try_files $uri /index.php$request_uri;
expires 6M; # Cache-Control policy borrowed from `.htaccess`
access_log off; # Optional: Don't log access to assets
}

location ~ \.woff2?$ {
try_files $uri /index.php$request_uri;
expires 7d; # Cache-Control policy borrowed from `.htaccess`
access_log off; # Optional: Don't log access to assets
}

# Rule borrowed from `.htaccess`
location /remote {
return 301 /remote.php$request_uri;
}

location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$request_uri;
}
}

然后启用该配置:

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ln -s /etc/nginx/site-available/nextcloud.conf /etc/nginx/site-enabled/nextcloud.conf

原来的 nginx 中已有配置:

/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
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http {
# ...
include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;
# ...
}

之后重启 nginx 服务:

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systemctl restart nginx

7. 配置 nextcloud

在 nextcloud 的配置文件中添加:

/etc/webapps/nextcloud/config.php
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'trusted_domains' => [
'<nextcloud.example.com>'
]

然后安装 nextcloud:

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occ maintenance:install --database mysql --database-name nextcloud --database-host localhost --database-user nextcloud --database-pass='<password>' --data-dir /var/lib/nextcloud/data

然后就可以登录了!

8. 配置 pacman hook

在 nextcloud 软件包更新后,自动更新 nextcloud 数据库:

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mkdir -vp /etc/pacman.d/hooks
ln -sv /usr/share/doc/nextcloud/nextcloud.hook /etc/pacman.d/hooks/

参考:

  • ArchWiki: Nextcloud
  • ArckWiki: MariaDB
  • Documentation: Nextcloud